A fellow science student once drunkenly said that “I am a biologist…I don’t understand art.” Although somewhat bemusing (both in and out of context), it raises a particular philosophical idea that I can’t agree with: that art and science directly contradict one another.
It’s a somewhat clichéd paradigm that art and science must work at odds with one another. The idea that art embraces emotion, creativity and abstract perception whilst science is solely dictated by rationality, methodology and universal statistics is one that still seems to be somewhat pervasive throughout society and culture. While there seems to be a more recent shift against this, with both ends of the spectrum acknowledging the importance of the other in their respective fields, the intersection of art and science has a long and productive history.
Typically, the disjunction from the emotional and evocative state of people with science is through how the science is written. In many formats (particularly for the most widely used scientific journals), artistic and emotional writing is seen to detract from the overall message and objectivity of the piece itself. And while appeal to emotion can certainly take away from or mislead the message of the writing, it’s important to connect and attract readers to the work in the first place. Trying to find a possible avenue to work in personal style and artistry into an academic paper is an incredibly difficult affair. This is a large contributor to the merit of non-journalistic forms of scientific communication such as books, poetry and even blogs (this was one motivator in starting this blog, in fact).
It might come as a surprise to readers that I love art quite a lot, especially given the (lack of) quality of the drawings in this blog. But I’ve always tried to flex my creative side and particular when I was a younger was a more avid writer and sketcher. And that truth of the matter is that I don’t feel that the artistic side of a person has to be at odds with their scientific side. In fact, the two directly complement each other by linking our rational, objective understanding of the world with the emotional, expressive and ideological aspects of the human personality.
The art of science
From one angle, science is actively driven by creativity, ambition and often abstract ideation. The desire to delve deep to find new knowledge is intrinsically an emotional and philosophical process and to pretend that science is devoid of passion discredits both the research and the researcher. Entire disciplines of biology, for example, find themselves driven by science and people with deep emotional connections to the natural world and a desire to both understand and protect the diversity of life. The works of John Gould in his explorations of the Australian biota remain some of my favourites for both scientific and artistic merit.
The science of art
From the other direction, science can also inform artistic works by expanding the human knowledge and experience with which to draw inspiration from. Naturally, this is an intrinsic part of genres such as science fiction, but many works of horror, abstraction, fantasy, thriller also draw on theories and revolutions brought about by scientific discovery. The further we understand the processes of the universe through scientific discovery, the greater the context and extent of our philosophical and emotional perspectives can be allowed to vary.
Gone are the days of dichotomy between 18-19th Century Impressionism and Enlightenment. Instead, the unity of science and art in the modern world can have significant positive contributions to both fields. Although there are still some elements of resistance between the two avenues, it is my belief that by allowing the intrinsically emotional nature of science to be expressed (albeit moderated by reason and logic) will allow science to influence a greater number of people, an especially important connection in the age of cynicism.
For most people, scientific research can seem somewhat distant and detached from the average person (and society generally). However, the distillation of scientific ideas into various forms of media has been done for ages, and is particularly prevalent (although not limited to) within science fiction. It’s not all that uncommon for scientists to describe the origination of their scientific interest to have come from classic sci-fi movies, tv shows, or games. I’m not saying dinosaurs haven’t always been cool, but after seeing them animated and ferocious in Jurassic Park, I have no doubt a new generation of palaeontologists were inspired to enter the field. I’m sure the same must also be at least partially true for archaeology and Indiana Jones. While I can guarantee the actual scientific research is nowhere near as adventurous and high-octane thriller as those movies would depict, their respective popularities renew interest in the science and inspire new students of the disciplines.
The inclusion of science within pop culture media such as movies, tv shows, music and video games can have profound impacts on the overall perception of science. This influence seems to go either way depending on how the science is presented and perceived: positive outlooks on science can succinctly present scientific matter in a way that is easy to interpret, and thus can generate interest in the fields of science. Contrastingly, negative outlooks on science, or misinterpretations of science, can drastically impact what people understand about scientific theory. For example, despite being a horrendously outdated belief, Lucyproposed that the average human only uses 10% of their brain capacity: achieving 100% brain capacity using a stimulant, the titular character becomes miraculously superhuman. While this concept is clearly outrageously behind the times for anyone who follows psychological sciences, a disturbing number of people apparently still believe this notion. Thus, misrepresentation of scientific theory perpetuates outdated concepts.
Don’t get me wrong: I love ridiculous science fiction as much as the next nerd, and I’m certainly not of the expectation that all science-based information needs to be 100% accurate, without fail (after all, the fiction and fantasy has to fit somewhere…). But it’s important to make sure the transition from scientific research to popular media doesn’t lose the important facts along the way.
Evolution’s relationship with pop culture has been a little more complicated than other scientific theories. Sometimes it’s invoked rather loosely to explain supernatural alien monsters (e.g. Xenomorphs; Alien franchise); other times it’s flipped on its head to show a type of de-evolution (Planet of the Apes). Science fiction has long recognised the innovative and seemingly endless possibilities of evolution and the formation of new species. Generally, the audience is fairly familiar with the concept of evolution (at least in principle) and it makes for a useful tool for explaining the myriad of life in science fiction stories.
Evolution in video games?
It probably doesn’t come as a huge surprise to note that I’m a nerd in all aspects of my life, not just my career. For me, this is particularly a love of video games. Rarely, however, do these two forms of nerdism coincide for me: while some games apply science and scientific theory, they are usually biased towards physics and engineering disciplines (looking at you, Portal). As far as my field is concerned, there are a few notable examples (such as Spore) which encapsulate the essence and majesty of evolution, but rarely do they incorporate the ‘genetic’ aspect that I love.
You can then imagine my utter delight at the discovery of a game that actually incorporates both population genetics and interesting gameplay. The indie survival game, aptly named Niche: A Genetics Survival Game, very literally represents this ‘niche’ for me (and I will not apologise for the pun!). Combining simplified models of population genetics processes such as genetic diversity, inbreeding (and associated inbreeding depression), natural selection, and stochastic events, Niche beautifully incorporates scientific theory (albeit toned down to a layman level) with challenging, yet engaging, gameplay mechanics and adorable art style.
As one might expect from the title, Niche is at heart a survival game: the aim is to have your very own population of animals (dubbed ‘Nichelings’) survive the stresses of the world, through balancing population size, gene pools, resources (such as food, nests, space) and fighting off predators. Over time, the genetics component drives the evolution of your Nichelings, pushing them to be better at certain tasks depending on the traits selected for: the ultimate aim of the game is to create the perfectly adapted species that can colonise all of the land masses randomly generated.
Niche requires cunning strategy, good foresight and planning, and sometimes a little luck. Although I’m decidedly not very good at Niche yet (I think my rates of extinction would mirror the real world a little too much for my liking…), the chance to involve my scientific background into my favourite hobby is a somewhat magical experience.
You might wonder why I care so much about a video game. While the game is in and of itself an interesting concept, to me it exemplifies one way we can make science an enjoyable and digestible concept for non-scientists. It’s possible that Niche could open the door of population-level genetics and evolution to a new audience, and potentially inspire the next generation of scientists in the field. Although that might be an extraordinarily long shot, it is my hope that the curiosity, mystery and creativity of scientific research is at least partially represented in media such as gaming to help integrate science and society.
Using video games for science?!
Both science and society can benefit from the (accurate) representation of science in pop culture, not just through fostering a connection between scientific theory and the recreational hobbies of people. In rare occasions, pop culture can even be used as a surrogate medium for testing scientific theories and hypotheses in a specific environment: for example, World of Warcraft has unwittingly contributed to scientific progress. As part of a particular boss battle, characters could become infected with a particular disease (called “Corrupted Blood”), which would have significant effects on players but only for a few seconds. While this was supposed to be removed after leaving the area of the fight, a bug in the game caused it to stay on animal pets that were afflicted, and thus become a viral phenomenon when it started to spread into the wider world (of Warcraft). The presence of the epidemic wiped out swathes of lower level players and caused significant social repercussions in the World of Warcraft community as players adjusted their behaviour to avoid or prevent transmission of the deadly disease.
This unique circumstance allowed a group of scientists to use it as a simulation of a real viral outbreak, as the spread of the disease was directly related to the social behaviour and interactivity of players within the game. The “Corrupted Blood” incident such enthralled scientists that multiplepapers were published discussing the feasibility of using virtual gaming worlds to simulate human reactions to epidemic outbreaks and viral transmissions on an unparalleled scale. Similarities between the method of transmission and behavioural responses to real-world events such as the avian flu epidemic were made.
This isn’t the only example of even World of Warcraft informing research, with others using it to model economic theories through a free market auction system. While these may seem extraordinarily strange (to scientists and non-scientists alike), these examples demonstrate how popular media such as gaming can be an important interactive front between science and society.