The roles of aridification and sea level changes in the diversification and persistence of freshwater fish lineages
Sean James Buckley, Chris Brauer, Peter Unmack, Michael Hammer, Luciano B. Beheregaray
Abstract: While the influence of Pleistocene climatic changes on divergence and speciation has been well-documented across the globe, complex spatial interactions between hydrology and eustatics over longer timeframes may also determine species evolutionary trajectories. Within the Australian continent, glacial cycles were not associated with changes in ice cover and instead largely resulted in fluctuations from moist to arid conditions across the landscape. Here, we investigate the role of hydrological and coastal topographic changes brought about by Plio-Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeographic history of a small Australian freshwater fish, the southern pygmy perch Nannoperca australis. Using 7,958 ddRAD-seq (double digest restriction-site associated DNA) loci and 45,104 filtered SNPs, we combined phylogenetic, coalescent and species distribution analyses to investigate the various roles of aridification, sea level and tectonics and associated biogeographic changes across southeast Australia. Sea-level changes since the Pliocene and reduction or disappearance of large waterbodies throughout the Pleistocene were determining factors in strong divergence across the clade, including the initial formation and maintenance of a cryptic species, N. ‘flindersi’. Isolated climatic refugia and fragmentation due to lack of connected waterways maintained the identity and divergence of inter- and intraspecific lineages. Our historical findings suggest that predicted increases in aridification and sea level due to anthropogenic climate change might result in markedly different demographic impacts, both spatially and across different landscape types.
Phylogenomic history of enigmatic pygmy perches: Implications for biogeography, taxonomy and conservation
Sean J. Buckley, Fabricius M. C. B. Domingos, Catherine R. M. Attard, Chris J. Brauer, Jonathan Sandoval-Castillo, Ryan Lodge, Peter J. Unmack, Luciano B. Beheregaray
Abstract: Pygmy perches (Percichthyidae) are a group of poorly dispersing freshwater fishes that have a puzzling biogeographic disjunction across southern Australia. Current understanding of pygmy perch phylogenetic relationships suggests past east–west migrations across a vast expanse of now arid habitat in central southern Australia, a region lacking contemporary rivers. Pygmy perches also represent a threatened group with confusing taxonomy and potentially cryptic species diversity. Here, we present the first study of the evolutionary history of pygmy perches based on genome-wide information. Data from 13 991 ddRAD loci and a concatenated sequence of 1 075 734 bp were generated for all currently described and potentially cryptic species. Phylogenetic relationships, biogeographic history and cryptic diversification were inferred using a framework that combines phylogenomics, species delimitation and estimation of divergence times. The genome-wide phylogeny clarified the biogeographic history of pygmy perches, demonstrating multiple east–west events of divergence within the group across the Australian continent. These results also resolved discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial data from a previous study. In addition, we propose three cryptic species within a southwestern species complex. The finding of potentially new species demonstrates that pygmy perches may be even more susceptible to ecological and demographic threats than previously thought. Our results have substantial implications for improving conservation legislation of pygmy perch lineages, especially in southwestern Western Australia.