Emotional science: passion, spirituality and curiosity

“Science is devoid of emotion”

Emotion and spirituality are concepts that inherently seem at odds with the fundamentally stoic, empirical nature of scientific research. Science is based on a rigorous system of objectivity, repeatability and empiricism that, at face value, appears to completely disregard subjective aspects such as emotion, spirituality or religion. But in the same way that this drives the division of art from science, removing these subjective components of science can take away some of the personal significance and driving factors of scientific discipline.

Emotions as a driving force in science

For many scientists, emotional responses to inquiry, curiosity and connection are important components of their initial drive to study science in the first place. The natural curiosity of humanity, the absolute desire to know and understand the world around us, is fundamental to scientific advancement (and is a likely source of science as a concept in the first place). We care deeply about understanding many aspects of the natural world, and for many there is a strong emotional connection to our study fields. Scientists are fundamentally drawn to this career path based on some kind of emotional desire to better understand it.

Although it’s likely a massive cliché, Contact is one of my favourite science-fiction movies for simultaneously tackling faith, emotion, rationality, and scientific progress. And no doubt any literary student could dissect these various themes over and over and discuss exactly how the movie balances the opposing concepts of faith in the divine and scientific inquiry (and the overlap of the two). But for me, the most heartfelt aspect the movie is the portrayal of Ellie Arroway: a person who is insatiably driven to science, to the point of sacrificing many things in her life (including faith). But she’s innately an emotional person; when her perspectives are challenged by her observations, it’s a profound moment for her as a person. Ellie, to me, represents scientists pretty well: passionate, driven, idealistic but rational and objective as best as she can be. These traits make her very admirable (and a great protagonist, as far as I’m concerned).

Ellie Arroway photo
Also, Jodie Foster is an amazing actress.

I would not, under ordinary circumstances, consider myself to be particularly sentimental or spiritual. I don’t believe in many spiritual concepts (including theism, the afterlife, or concepts of a ‘soul’), and try to handle life as rationally and objectively as I can (sometimes not very successful given my mental health). But I can’t even remotely deny that there is a strong emotional or spiritual attachment to my field of science. Without delving too much into my own personal narrative (at the risk of being a little self-absorbed and pretentious; it’s also been covered a little in another post), the emotional connection I share with the life of Earth is definitely something that drove me to study biology and evolution. The sense of wonder and curiosity at observing the myriad of creatures and natural selection can concoct. The shared feeling of being alive in all of its aspects. The mystery of the world being seen through eyes very different to ours.

Headcase headspace artwork
More shameless self-promotion of my own artwork. You’ll notice that most of my art includes some science-based aspects (usually related to biology/evolution/genetics), largely because that’s what inspires me. Feeling passionate and emotional about science drives both my artistic and scientific sides.

Attachment to the natural world

I’d guess that there are many people who say they feel a connection to nature and animals in some form or another. I definitely think this is the case for many biologists of various disciplines: an emotional connection to the natural world is a strong catalyst for curiosity and it’s no surprise that this could develop later in life to a scientific career. For some scientists, an emotional attachment to a particular taxonomic group is a defining driving force in their choice of academic career; science provides a platform to understand, conserve and protect the species we hold most dear.

Me with cockatoo
A photo of me with Adelaide Zoo’s resident Red-tailed Black Cockatoo, Banks (his position was unsolicited, for reference). Giving people the opportunity to have an emotional connection (as silly as that might be) with nature can improve conservation efforts and environmental protection, boost eco-based tourism, and potentially even make people happier

 

An appeal to reason and emotion 

Although it’s of course always better to frame an argument or present research in an objective, rational matter, people have a tendency to respond well to appeal to emotion. In this sense, presenting scientific research as something that can be evocative, powerful and emotional is, in my belief, a good tactic to get the general public invested in science. Getting people to care about our research, our study species, and our findings is a difficult task but one that is absolutely necessary for the longevity and development of science at both the national and global level.

Pretending the science is emotionless and apathetic is counterproductive to the very things that drove us to do the science in the first place. Although we should attempt to be aware of, and distance, our emotions from the objective, data-based analysis of our research, admitting and demonstrating our passions (and why we feel so passionate) is critical in distilling science into the general population. Science should be done rationally and objectively but driven by emotional characteristics such as wonder, curiosity and fascination.

The (false) dichotomy of art and science

Art vs. Science?

A fellow science student once drunkenly said that “I am a biologist…I don’t understand art.” Although somewhat bemusing (both in and out of context), it raises a particular philosophical idea that I can’t agree with: that art and science directly contradict one another.

It’s a somewhat clichéd paradigm that art and science must work at odds with one another. The idea that art embraces emotion, creativity and abstract perception whilst science is solely dictated by rationality, methodology and universal statistics is one that still seems to be somewhat pervasive throughout society and culture. While there seems to be a more recent shift against this, with both ends of the spectrum acknowledging the importance of the other in their respective fields, the intersection of art and science has a long and productive history.

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A piece I did for a high school assignment some years ago. The artwork was meant to be the visual representation of Edgar Allen Poe’s 1829 poem “Sonnet- To Science“, by showing the dichotomy of the beauty of the natural world (left) vs. the cold, rigorousness of science (right).

Typically, the disjunction from the emotional and evocative state of people with science is through how the science is written. In many formats (particularly for the most widely used scientific journals), artistic and emotional writing is seen to detract from the overall message and objectivity of the piece itself. And while appeal to emotion can certainly take away from or mislead the message of the writing, it’s important to connect and attract readers to the work in the first place. Trying to find a possible avenue to work in personal style and artistry into an academic paper is an incredibly difficult affair. This is a large contributor to the merit of non-journalistic forms of scientific communication such as books, poetry and even blogs (this was one motivator in starting this blog, in fact).

It might come as a surprise to readers that I love art quite a lot, especially given the (lack of) quality of the drawings in this blog. But I’ve always tried to flex my creative side and particular when I was a younger was a more avid writer and sketcher. And that truth of the matter is that I don’t feel that the artistic side of a person has to be at odds with their scientific side. In fact, the two directly complement each other by linking our rational, objective understanding of the world with the emotional, expressive and ideological aspects of the human personality.

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My own (non-blog) artwork tends to combine both imagery from the natural world and more emotional themes (e.g. mental health).

The art of science

From one angle, science is actively driven by creativity, ambition and often abstract ideation. The desire to delve deep to find new knowledge is intrinsically an emotional and philosophical process and to pretend that science is devoid of passion discredits both the research and the researcher. Entire disciplines of biology, for example, find themselves driven by science and people with deep emotional connections to the natural world and a desire to both understand and protect the diversity of life. The works of John Gould in his explorations of the Australian biota remain some of my favourites for both scientific and artistic merit.

The science of art

From the other direction, science can also inform artistic works by expanding the human knowledge and experience with which to draw inspiration from. Naturally, this is an intrinsic part of genres such as science fiction, but many works of horror, abstraction, fantasy, thriller also draw on theories and revolutions brought about by scientific discovery. The further we understand the processes of the universe through scientific discovery, the greater the context and extent of our philosophical and emotional perspectives can be allowed to vary.

We Are All Stars
A piece by local artist and good friend of mine (and also the designer of The G-CAT logo!) Michelle Fedornak. She describes her piece (dubbed ‘We Are All Stars’) as inspired by the explorations of the Mars Curiosity rover and tackles themes of identity and isolation in the galactic space. Thus, her work combines the philosophical and emotional side of scientific exploration with the artistry and consciousness of human identity.

Unity

Gone are the days of dichotomy between 18-19th Century Impressionism and Enlightenment. Instead, the unity of science and art in the modern world can have significant positive contributions to both fields. Although there are still some elements of resistance between the two avenues, it is my belief that by allowing the intrinsically emotional nature of science to be expressed (albeit moderated by reason and logic) will allow science to influence a greater number of people, an especially important connection in the age of cynicism.

Pseudo or science? Interpreting scientific reports

Telling the real from the fake

The phrase ‘fake news’ seems to get thrown around ad nauseum these days, but there’s a reason for it (besides the original somewhat famous coining of the phrase). Inadvertently bad, or sometimes downright malicious, reporting of various apparent ‘trends’ or ‘patterns’ are rife throughout nearly all forms of media. Particularly, many entirely subjective or blatantly falsified presentations or reports of ‘fact’ cloud real scientific inquiry and its distillation into the broader community. In fact, a recent study has shown that falsified science spreads through social media at orders of magnitude faster than real science: so why is this? And how do we spot the real from the fake?

It’s imperative that we understand what real science entails to be able to separate it from the pseudoscience. Of course, scientific rigour and method are always of utmost importance, but these can be hard to detect (or can be effectively lied through colourful language choices). When reading a scientific article, whether it’s direct from the source (a journal, such as Nature or Science) or secondarily through a media outlet such as the news or online sources, there’s a few things that you should always look for that will help discern between the two categories.

Peer-review and adequate referencing

Firstly, is the science presented in an objective, logical manner? Does it systematically demonstrate the study system and question, with the relevant reference to peer-reviewed literature? Good science builds upon the wealth of previously done good science to contribute to a broader field of knowledge; in this way, critical observations and alternative ideas can be compared and contrasted to steer the broader field. Even entirely novel science, which go against the common consensus, will reference and build upon prior literature and justify the necessity and design of the study. Having written more than one literature review in my life, I can safely assure you that there is no shortage of relevant scientific studies that need to be read, understood and built upon in any future scientific study.

 

Methods, statistics and sampling

Secondly, is there a solid methodological basis for the science? In almost all cases this will include some kind of statistical measure for the validity (and accuracy) of the results. How does the sample size of the study measure up to what the target group? Remember, a study size of 500 people is definitely too small to infer the medical conditions of all humans, but rarely do we get sample sizes that big in evolutionary genetics studies (especially in non-model species). The sampling regime is extremely important for interpreting the results: particularly, keep in mind if there is an inherent bias in the way the sampling has been done. Are some groups more represented than others? Where do the samples come from? What other factors might be influencing the results, based on the origin of the samples?

Cat survey comic 2
Despite having a large sample size, and a significant result (p<0.05), this study cannot conclude that all dogs are awful. It can conclude, however, that cats are statistically significant assholes.

Presentation and language of findings

Thirdly, how does the source present the results? Does it make claims that seem beyond a feasible conclusion based on the study itself? Even if the underlying study is scientific, many secondary sources have a tendency to ‘sensationalise’ the results in order to make them both more appealing and more digestible to the general public. This is only exacerbated by the lack of information of the scientific method of the original paper, actual statistics, or the accurate summation of those statistics. Furthermore, a real scientific study will try to (in most cases) avoid evocative words such as ‘prove’, as a fundamental aspect of science is that no study is 100% ‘proven’ (see falsifiability below). Proofs are a relevant mathematical concept though, but these fall under a different category altogether.

Here’s an example: recently, an Australian mainstream media outlet (among many) shared a story about a ‘recent’ (six months old) study that found that second-born children are more likely to be criminals and first-born children have higher IQ. As you might expect, the original study does not imply that being born second will make you a sudden murderer nor will being the first born make you a prodigy. Instead, the authors suggest that there may be a link between differential parental investment/attention (between different age order children) as a potential mechanism. They ruled out, based on a wealth of statistics, the influence of alternative factors such as health or education (both in quality and quantity). Thus, there is a correlative (read: not causative) effect of age on these characteristics. If you directly interpreted the newscast (or read some of the misguided comments), you might think otherwise.

Falsifiability 

Fourthly, are the hypotheses in the study falsifiable? One of the foundations of the modern scientific method includes the requirement of any real scientific hypothesis to be falsifiable; that is, there must be a way to show evidence against that hypothesis. This can be difficult to evaluate, but is why some broad philosophical questions are considered ‘unscientific’. A classic example is the phrase “all swans are white”, which was apparently historically believed in Europe (where there are no black swans). This statement is technically falsifiable, since if one found a non-white swan it would ‘disprove’ the hypothesis. Lo and behold, Europeans arrive in Australia and find that, actually, some swans are black. The original statement was thus falsified.

Swan comic 2
Well, I’ll be damned falsified. Just pretend the swan is actually black: I don’t have enough ink to make it realistic…

The role of the peer: including you!

Peer-review is a critical aspect of scientific process, and despite some conspiracy-theory-esque remarks about the secret Big Science Society, it generally works. While independent people inevitably have their own personal biases and are naturally subjective to some degree (no matter how hard we may try to be objective), a larger number of well-informed, critical thinkers help to broaden the focus and perspective surrounding any scientific subject. Remember, nothing is more critical of science than science itself.

Peer review comic
One of the most apt representations of peer-review I’ve ever seen, from Dr. Nick D. Kim (PhD). Source: here.

While peer-review is technically aimed at other scientists as a way to steer and inform research, the input of outsider, non-specialist readers can still be informative. By closely looking at science, and better understanding both how it is done and what it is showing, can help us evaluate how valuable science is to broader society and shift scientific information into useful, everyday applications. Furthermore, by educating ourselves on what is real science, and what is disruptive drivel, we can aid the development of science and reduce the slowing impact of misinformation and deceit.